Bandwidth refers to the amount of information that can be transmitted over a network in a given amount of time, usually expressed in bits per second or bps

Protocols are the set of rules / algorithm used to learn routes, so that network traffic can be passed from a source to the destination.

Broadcast Domain
A broadcast domain is a logical division of a computer network, in which all nodes can reach each other by broadcast at the data link layer

Collision Domain
A collision domain is a section of a network connected by a shared medium or through repeaters where data packets can collide with one another when being sent, particularly when using early versions of Ethernet.

Provider Edge (PE)
PE is Provider Edge Router. This is called Edge Router, as this router connects directly with the Customer device.

Customer Edge (CE)
CE is Customer Edge Router. This is called Edge Router, as this router connects directly with the Service Provider.

Modem is the combination of two words, Mo stands for Modulation, and Dem stands for Demodulation. So, Modem performs the Modulation & Demodulation process both.
In Real World, Modem is used to confirm power issue at the site.

Cross Cable & Straight Cable


RJ45 & CAT6
RJ45 is the connector shown in above picture.
CAT6 is the type of cable shown in above picture

SFP is the small form-factor pluggable (SFP) is a compact, hot-pluggable transceiver used for both telecommunication and data communications applications. It is used for connecting fiber cables.


Chassis is the outer body or mechanical covering, in which different network modules can be inserted for proper functioning of device.

Example Picture – 6503 Chassis Front View


Example Picture – 6503 Chassis Rear View


Supervisor Card (SUP)
SUP card is the Supervisor card, which act as the central unit in a network switch, to handle incoming & outgoing traffic Just to understand functionality, Its is similar to CPU in a computer.

Example – SUP Models – SUP2T, SUP720

Example Picture


E1 is the European format for digital transmission. E1 carries signals at 2 Mbps (32 channels at 64Kbps, with 2 channels reserved for signaling and controlling).
In India, we use the E1 for transmission. E1 is of 2.048 Mbps. E1 is also called KLM.


T1 is used in North America and most parts of Asia.T1 is a digital transmission link with a total transmit and receive rate of 1.544 Mbps (1544000 bits per second)
One Frame = 24 Time Slots (8 Bit) + Sync Bit (1 Bit) =24*8+1= 192+1=193 Bits
One Super Frame= 12 Frames