Checkpoint firewall common commands part 2

For basic firewall informaton gathering: fgate stat-Status and statistics of Flood-Gate-1. fwaccel <stat|stats|conns> – View status, statistics or connection table of SecureXL. fw getifs-Show list of configured interfaces with IP and netmask. cpstat <app_flag> [-f flavour] -View OS, HW and CP application status. Issue cpstat without any options to see all possible application flags <app_flag> and [...]

common Switch troubleshooting commands

For CPU related issues: Show process cpu sorted Show process cpu history Show platform port-asic stats drop Show controllers cpu-interface Debug platform cpu-queues Show plat for ip For memory issues Show memory statistics Show process memory sorted Show buffers For link issues Show interface status | inc connected Test cable-diagnostics tdr interface <> Show cable-diagnostic [...]


There are three types of Etherchannels negotiation mechanism PAgP  (Port Aggregation Protocol)- Cisco’s proprietary negotiation protocol LACP (Link Aggregation Protocol)  – Standards-based negotiation protocol Static Persistence (“On”) – No negotiation protocol is used   There are two types of Etherchannels 1) Layer2   2) Layer3 1) Layer2 Etherchannels: Switch1(config)# interface range gigabitethernet0/1 -4  Switch1(config-if-range)# switchport access [...]

PVST+ & RPVST+ configuration

spanning-tree mode {pvst | rapid-pvst} ##Bridge priority## spanning-tree vlan 1-4094 priority 32768 ##STP Timers, in seconds## spanning-tree vlan 1-4094 hello-time 2 spanning-tree vlan 1-4094 forward-time 15 spanning-tree vlan 1-4094 max-age 20 ##PVST+ Enhancements## spanning-tree backbonefast spanning-tree uplinkfast ##Interface attributes ## interface FastEthernet0/1 spanning-tree [vlan 1-4094] port-priority 128 spanning-tree [vlan 1-4094] cost 19 ##Manual link type [...]

What is VPN?

A VPN (Virtual Private Network) is a way of making a secure connection to and from a network or computer. VPNs have been used for years, but they have become more powerful in recent years. They are more affordable and also much faster. There are many different types of VPNs available. Let’s take a look [...]

What is VDC’s?

Cisco Nexus 7000 Series switches can be segmented into virtual devices based on customer requirements. VDCs offer several benefits e.g. fault isolation, administration plane, separation of data traffic, and enhanced security. This logical separation provides the following  benefits: Administrative and management separation Change and failure domain isolation from other VDCs Address, VLAN, VRF, and vPC isolation Each VDC acts as an [...]

What is WCCP?

WCCP (Web Cache Communication Protocol) allows Cisco IOS routing platforms to transparently redirect content requests. The main benefit of transparent redirection is that users need not configure their browsers to use a web proxy. Instead, they can use the target URL to request content, and have their requests automatically redirected to a cache engine. The [...]

How does TCP try to avoid network meltdown?

TCP includes several mechanisms that attempt to sustain good data transfer rates while avoiding placing excessive load on the network. -TCP’s “Slow Start”, “Congestion Avoidance”, “Fast Retransmit” and “Fast Recovery” -TCP also mandates an algorithm that avoids “Silly Window Syndrome” (SWS), an undesirable condition that results in very small chunks of data being transferred between [...]

What is WCCP?

Web Cache Communication Protocol (WCCP) is a Cisco proprietary content-routing protocol that provides a mechanism to redirect traffic flows in real-time. It has built-in load balancing, scaling, fault tolerance, and service-assurance (failsafe) mechanisms. WCCP allows utilization of Cisco Cache Engines(ACNS/WAAS) to localize web traffic patterns in the network, enabling content requests to be fulfilled locally. [...]

What is SONET and POS?

Synchronous Optical Networking (SONET) is a standardised protocols that transfer multiple digital bit streams synchronously over optical fiber using lasers or highly coherent light from light-emitting diodes (LEDs).SONET is a set of transport containers that allow for delivery of a variety of protocols, including traditional telephony, ATM, Ethernet, and TCP/IP traffic. SONET therefore is not [...]