What is SONET and POS?

Synchronous Optical Networking (SONET) is a standardised protocols that transfer multiple digital bit streams synchronously over optical fiber using lasers or highly coherent light from light-emitting diodes (LEDs).SONET is a set of transport containers that allow for delivery of a variety of protocols, including traditional telephony, ATM, Ethernet, and TCP/IP traffic. SONET therefore is not [...]

What is fragmentation?

IP fragmentation involves breaking a datagram into a number of pieces that can be reassembled later.The design of IP accommodates MTU differences by letting routers to fragment IP datagrams as necessary. The receiving station is in charge for reassembling the fragments back into the original full size IP datagram.

What is MSS?

The maximum segment size (MSS) is a parameter of the TCP protocol that specifies the largest amount of data, specified in octets, that a computer or communications device can receive in a single TCP segment. It does not count the TCP header or the IP header.

What is HSRP?

HSRP is Cisco’s standard method of providing high network availability by providing first-hop redundancy for IP hosts on an IEEE 802 LAN configured with a default gateway IP address. HSRP routes IP traffic without relying on the availability of any single router. It enables a set of router interfaces to work together to present the [...]

What is VTP?

VTP (VLAN Trunking Protocol) is a Layer 2 messaging protocol that maintains VLAN configuration consistency by managing the addition, deletion, and renaming of VLANs within a VTP domain. A VTP domain is made up of one or more network devices that share the same VTP domain name and that are interconnected with trunks.

What are the VTP modes?

There are 3 modes in VTP Server—In VTP server mode, you can create, modify, and delete VLANs and specify other configuration parameters (such as VTP version and VTP pruning) for the entire VTP domain. VTP servers advertise their VLAN configuration to other network devices in the same VTP domain and synchronize their VLAN configuration with [...]

What is HSRP?

Hot Standby Router Protocol (HSRP) provides redundancy for IP networks, ensuring that user traffic immediately and transparently recovers from first hop router failures. HSRP allows multiple routers on a single LAN to share a virtual IP and MAC address, which is configured as the default gateway on the hosts. From the group of routers configured [...]

What is BPDU?

BPDU stands for bridge protocol data unit. BPDUs are data messages that are exchanged across the switches within an extended LAN that uses a spanning tree protocol topology. BPDU packets contain information on ports, addresses, priorities and costs and ensure that the data ends up where it was intended to go. BPDU messages are exchanged [...]

What is etherchannel

EtherChannel is a port link aggregation technology or port-channel architecture used primarily on Cisco switches. It allows grouping of several physical Ethernet links to create one logical Ethernet link for the purpose of providing fault-tolerance and high-speed links between switches, routers and servers.

Can you explain the concept of CIDR

CIDR (Classless Inter-Domain Routing) was introduced in 1993 (RCF 1517) replacing the previous generation of IP address syntax – classful networks. CIDR allowed for more efficient use of IPv4 address space and prefix aggregation, known as route summarization or supernetting. CIDR introduction allowed for: -More efficient use of IPv4 address space -Prefix aggregation, which reduced [...]

What is subnetting

When we Subnet a network, we basically split it into smaller networks. For example, when a set of IP Addresses is given to a company, e.g 254 they might want to “break” (the correct term is “partition”) that one network into smaller ones, one for each department. This way, their Technical department and Management department [...]

Can you explain the role of each layer in OSI model

Layer 7— The application layer: This is the layer at which communication partners are identified, quality of service is identified, user authentication and privacy are considered, and any constraints on data syntax are identified. (This layer is not the application itself, although some applications may perform application layer functions). It represents the services that directly [...]