Layer 7— The application layer: This is the layer at which communication partners are identified, quality of service is identified, user authentication and privacy are considered, and any constraints on data syntax are identified. (This layer is not the application itself, although some applications may perform application layer functions). It represents the services that directly support applications such as software for file transfers, database access, email, and network games.
Layer 6—The presentation layer: This is a layer, usually part of an operating system, that converts incoming and outgoing data from one presentation format to another (for example, from a text stream into a popup window with the newly arrived text). This layer also manages security issues by providing services such as data encryption and compression. It’s sometimes called the syntax layer.
Layer 5—The session layer: This layer allows applications on different computers to establish, use, and end a session/connection. This layer establishes dialog control between the two computers in a session, regulating which side transmits, and when and how long it transmits.
Layer 4—The transport layer: This layer handles error recognition and recovery, manages the end-to-end control (for example, determining whether all packets have arrived) and error-checking. It ensures complete data transfer.
Layer 3—The network layer: This layer handles the routing of the data, addresses messages and translates logical addresses and names into physical addresses. It also determines the route from the source to the destination computer and manages traffic problems (flow control), such as switching, routing, and controlling the congestion of data packets.
Layer 2—The data-link layer: This layer package raw bit from the Physical layer into frames (logical, structures packets for data). It is responsible for transferring frames from one computer to another, without errors. After sending a frame, it waits for an acknowledgment from the receiving computer.
Layer 1—The physical layer: This layer transmits bits from one computer to another and regulates the transmission of a stream of bits over a physical medium. This layer defines how the cable is attached to the network adapter and what transmission technique is used to send data over the cable.