There are five topologies for networks 1. Ring Topology 2. Star Topology. 3. Bus Topology. 4. Mess Topology. 5. Hybrid Topology.
In a Denial of Service (DoS) attack, a hacker uses a single Internet connection to either exploit a software vulnerability or flood a target with fake requests—usually in an attempt to exhaust server resources (e.g., RAM and CPU). On the other hand, Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks are launched from multiple connected devices that [...]
DoS (Denial of Service) attack can be generated by sending a flood of data or requests to a target system resulting in a consume/crash of the target system’s resources. The attacker often uses ip spoofing to conceal his identity when launching a DoS attack.
BIG-IP LTM provides a variety of load balancing methods to choose from. There are two types of load balancing methods. statistic load balancing method / mode. dynamic load balancing mode. 1. statistic load balancing mode:- There are two static load balancing modes. 1.Round robin 2.Ratio 2..Dynamic load balancing mode:- 1.least connections 2.fastest 3.observed 4.predictive 5.dynamic [...]
We recently upgraded our app. Please install the latest update or in few days you will not able to receive the updates for app.
The biggest difference between the GTM and LTM is traffic doesn’t actually flow through the GTM to your servers. The GTM is an intelligent name resolver, intelligently resolving names to IP addresses. Once the GTM provides you with an IP to route to you’re done with the GTM until you ask it to resolve another [...]
A • AAL: ATM Adaptation Layer • ABM: Asynchronous Balance Mode • ABR: Available Bit Rate • AC: Access Control • ACK: Acknowledgment • ADSL: Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Links • ANI: Automatic Number Identification • ANSI: American National Standards Institute • API: Application Programming Interface • ARM: Asynchronous Response Mode • ARP: Address Resolution Protocol [...]
Cisco ASA has very powerful troubleshooting feature in ASA software version 7.2(1) or later that virtually eliminates the guesswork. Packet-tracer allows a firewall admins to inject a virtual packet into the security appliance and track the flow from ingress to egress. Along the way, the packet is evaluated against flow and route lookups, ACLs, protocol [...]
ESP does not provide authentication to the outer IP header, which AH does.
What command displays a summary list of OSPF interfaces that includes a column for the cost of each interface?
R1#show ip ospf interface brief
A transit AS is an AS that routes traffic from one external AS to another external AS The “show ip bgp” command is used to display entries in the BGP routing table. The AS-PATH attribute is used to prevent BGP routing loops. When receiving an BGP advertisement, the router checks the AS-PATH attribute, [...]
Passive-interface command is used in all routing protocols to disable sending updates out from a specific interface. However the command behavior varies from one protocol to another. RIP: In RIP this command will disable sending multicast updates via a specific interface but will allow listening to incoming updates from other RIP enabled neighbors.This simply means [...]
EIGRP is a Cisco proprietary protocol which means it will work only on Cisco routers. EIGRP is also called advanced distance vector or Hybrid routing protocol. Multicast or unicast is used for exchange of information. Multiple network layer protocols are supported. 100% loop-free. By default,EIGRP will limit itself to use no more than 50% of [...]
1. Weight (Bigger is better) 2. Local preference (Bigger is better) 3. Self originated (Locally injected is better than iBGP/eBGP learned) 4. AS-Path (Smaller is better) 5. Origin 6. MED (Smaller is better) 7. External (Prefer eBGP over iBGP) 8. IGP cost (Smaller is better) 9. EBGP Peering (Older is better) 10. Router- ID
The multi-VLAN port is a feature which allows switch for configuring a single port for two or more vlans. This feature allows users from different VLANs to access a server or router without implementing InterVLAN routing capability. A multi-VLAN port performs normal switching functions in all its assigned VLANs. Multi-VLAN port will not work when [...]
AAA debug radius debug tacacs show aaa-server protocol PROTOCOL_NAME test aaa-server Access Control Lists show access-list show run | include ACCESS_LIST_NAME show run object-group show run time-range Application Inspection show conn state STATE_TYPE detail show service-policy Configuring Interfaces show firewall show int show int ip brief show ip show mode show nameif show run interface [...]
In computer networking, the default route is a setting on a computer that defines the packet forwarding rule to use when no specific route can be determined for a given Internet Protocol (IP) destination address. All packets for destinations not established in the routing table are sent via the default route. The default route generally [...]
Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is an application–layer protocol defined by the Internet Architecture Board (IAB) in RFC1157 for exchanging management information between network devices. It is a part of Transmission Control Protocol⁄Internet Protocol (TCP⁄IP) protocol suite. SNMP is one of the widely accepted protocols to manage and monitor network elements. Most of the professional–grade [...]
ARP stands for Address Resolution Protocol. When you try to ping an IP address on your local network, say 192.168.1.1, your system has to turn the IP address 192.168.1.1 into a MAC address. This involves using ARP to resolve the address, hence its name. Systems keep an ARP look-up table where they store information about [...]
A load balancer is a device that acts as a reverse proxy and distributes network or application traffic across a number of servers. Load balancers are used to increase capacity (concurrent users) and reliability of applications. They improve the overall performance of applications by decreasing the burden on servers associated with managing and maintaining application and [...]
The Three-way handshake begins with the initiator sending a TCP segment with the SYN control bit flag set. TCP allows one side to establish a connection. The other side may either accept the connection or refuse it. If we consider this from application layer point of view, the side that is establishing the connection is [...]
The SPAN feature, which is sometimes called port mirroring or port monitoring, selects network traffic for analysis by a network analyzer. The network analyzer can be a Cisco SwitchProbe device or other Remote Monitoring (RMON) probe.
Using packet-tracer it is possible to trace the lifespan of a packet through the security appliance to see if it is behaving as expected. packet-tracer input [src_int] protocol src_addr src_port dest_addr dest_port [detailed] [xml] The packet-tracer command lets you do the following: -Debug all packet drops in production network. -Verify the configuration is working as [...]
Access-Lists Add the ACLs which we will need to NAT, the encryption domain and the group policy. access-list Example_Policy_ACL extended permit tcp object-group Local_LAN object-group Remote_LAN eq 80 access-list Example_Policy_ACL extended deny ip any any access-list Example_VPN_ACL permit ip object-group Local_LAN object-group Remote_LAN Group Policy Create your group policy which will restrict traffic between hosts [...]
When Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) is enabled on a router or when a router configured for OSPF is powered up, it tries to discover its OSPF neighbors and synchronize its database with them. Routers are said to be OSPF neighbors when they see their router ID in the received hello packet and the status [...]
Introduction: Policy-Based Routing (PBR) provides a method to forward packets by overriding the information available in the IP routing table. By using PBR, customers can implement policies that selectively cause packets to take different paths. Traditional IP routing forwards packets based only on the destination IP address in the packet. PBR can be configured to [...]
Basic: Initial Packet Processing —-> Security Pre-Policy —-> Application —-> Security Policy —-> Post Policy Processing Advance: Initial Packet Processing —-> Source Zone/Source Address —-> Forward Lookup —-> Destination Zone/Destination Address —-> NAT policy evaluated Security Pre-Policy —-> Check Allowed Ports —-> Session Created Application —-> Check for Encrypted Traffic —-> Decryption Policy —-> Application Override Policy —-> Application ID [...]
Checkpoint process the packet in the ingress and the egress using two CHAINS. Basic: -Physical layer – ingress interface -Data Link Layer/Ethernet -Inspect Driver [inspect Engine] -Network Layer/IP Routing -Inspect Driver -Data Link Layer/Ethernet -Physical layer – egress interface Advance: 1. NIC hardware -The network card receives electrical signalling from the link partner. 2. NIC [...]
When you enable the SSL VPN blade in Checkpoint firewall: You are automatically given a 30 day trial license for 10 users. Start the SSL VPN Wizard: -Configure your firewall access rules to permit SSL VPN traffic. The actual rules needed depend on your configuration. -A rule allowing HTTPS (TCP/443) traffic is automatically added to [...]
There are three steps for configuring the QoS on Cisco ASA firewall 1.Identify the traffic or define the traffic classes. To identify the traffic first create a new access-list to match the traffic. Once access-list is created call it in the class-map ciscoasa(config)#access-list qos extended permit tcp any any eq 25 ciscoasa(config)#class-map qos ciscoasa(config-cmap)#match access-list [...]
The rollback feature allows you to take a snapshot, or user checkpoint, of the Cisco NX-OS configuration and then reapply that configuration to your device at any point without having to reload the device. This checkpoint can be extremely useful when a new change is being tested and want immediate return to an original/stable configuration [...]
Two different VTP domains cannot exchange VLAN database information. In fact, splitting a switched network into more VTP domains is one of the few ways how to make one part of the network independent from another with respect to VTP. If two switches are supposed to synchronise their VLAN databases via VTP, they must be [...]
Check the system status myfirewall/pri/act# show firewall Firewall mode: Router myfirewall/pri/act# show version Cisco Adaptive Security Appliance Software Version 9.1(1) Device Manager Version 7.1(1)52 Compiled on Wed 28-Nov-12 10:38 by builders System image file is “disk0:/asa911-k8.bin” Config file at boot was “startup-config” myfirewall up 218 days 1 hour failover cluster up 5 years 10 days [...]
Device management: Show general system-health information –> show system info Show percent usage of disk partitions –> show system disk-space Show the maximum log file size –> show system logdb-quota Show running processes –> show system software status Show processes running in the management plane –> show system resources Show resource utilization in the dataplane [...]
For administration and configuration tasks: cpconfig -Menu based configuration tool. Options depend on the installed products and modules. sysconfig -Start SPLAT OS and Check Point product configuration tool. cp_conf admin add <user> <pass> <perm> -Add admin user with password pass and permissions perm where w is read/write access and r is read only. Note:permission w [...]
For basic firewall informaton gathering: fgate stat-Status and statistics of Flood-Gate-1. fwaccel <stat|stats|conns> – View status, statistics or connection table of SecureXL. fw getifs-Show list of configured interfaces with IP and netmask. cpstat <app_flag> [-f flavour] -View OS, HW and CP application status. Issue cpstat without any options to see all possible application flags <app_flag> and [...]
For starting or stopping firewall services cpstop-Stop all Check Point services except cprid . You can also stop specific services by issuing an option with cpstop. For instance cpstop FW1 stops FW-1/VPN-1 or use cpstop WebAccess to stop WebAccess. cpstart-Start all Check Point services except cprid . cpstart works with the same options as cpstop [...]
For CPU related issues: Show process cpu sorted Show process cpu history Show platform port-asic stats drop Show controllers cpu-interface Debug platform cpu-queues Show plat for ip For memory issues Show memory statistics Show process memory sorted Show buffers For link issues Show interface status | inc connected Test cable-diagnostics tdr interface <> Show cable-diagnostic [...]
Routing policies for a peer include all the configurations such as route-map, distribute-list, prefix-list, & filter-list that may impact inbound or outbound routing table updates. Whenever there is a change in the routing policy, the BGP session must be cleared, or reset, for the new policy to take effect. There are two types of reset, [...]