A receiving host computes the checksum on a frame and determines that the frame is damaged. The frame is then discarded. At which OSI layer did this happen?

The Data Link layer provides the physical transmission of the data and handles error notification, network topology, and flow control. The Data Link layer formats the message into pieces, each called a data frame, and adds a customized header containing the hardware destination and source address. Protocols Data Unit (PDU) on Datalink layer is called [...]

If there are multiple EIGRP and OSPF neighborship flap over the GRE tunnel what could be the problem and how would solve it?

If in the logging you are getting the error message %TUN-5-RECURDOWN: Tunnel0 temporarily disabled due to recursive routing It means that GRE Router tunnel has found a recursive routing problem. The symptoms of this issue include the continous flapping of tunnel interface as well as EIGRP,OSPF & BGP neighbours when neighbours are over the GRE. [...]

How to configure GLBP?

Gateway Load Balancing Protocol (GLBP) provides redundancy for IP networks, ensuring that user traffic immediately and transparently recovers from first hop router failures, while allowing packet load sharing between a group of redundant routers. GLBP provides load balancing over multiple routers (gateways) using a single virtual IP address and multiple virtual MAC addresses. Each host is [...]

What is VSS?

The Virtual Switching System (VSS) is a clustering technology that combines two Cisco Catalyst 4500 or 6500 Series into a single virtual switch. In a VSS, the data plane of both clustered switches is active at the same time in both chassis. VSS members are connected by virtual switch links (VSLs) using standard Gigabit or 10 Gigabit [...]

Useful BGP commands on Cisco Routers

When BGP is not behaving correctly, a “trick” to temporarily stop peering with a neighbor is to use the following command: router bgp 194 neighbor<ipaddress> password xxx Since the other router doesn’t have the same password, the two routers will stop talking to one another, without you having to do anything else. Later, when the [...]

How to use the embedded wireshark in Cisco 3850 switches to capture the traffic

On the 3850 switches has embedded wireshark that can be used to packet capture during the troubleshooting this negate the need of SPAN to capture the traffic. -Define your source monitor capture mycap interface GigabitEthernet1/0/1 both -Set your match statement monitor capture mycap access-list myacl monitor capture mycap match ipv4 any any -Set your destination [...]

What is BFD?

Bidirectional Forwarding Detection (BFD) provides a low-overhead, short-duration method of detecting failures in the forwarding path between two adjacent routers, including the interfaces, data links, and forwarding planes. BFD is a detection protocol that you enable at the interface and routing protocol levels. Cisco supports the BFD asynchronous mode, which depends on the sending of [...]

Palo Alto CLI cheat sheet

Device management: Show general system-health information –> show system info Show percent usage of disk partitions –> show system disk-space Show the maximum log file size –> show system logdb-quota Show running processes –> show system software status Show processes running in the management plane –> show system resources Show resource utilization in the dataplane –> show running resource-monitor Show the [...]

What is VDC’s in Nexus Switches?

Cisco Nexus 7000 Series switches can be segmented into virtual devices based on customer requirements. VDCs offer several benefits e.g. fault isolation, administration plane, separation of data traffic, and enhanced security. This logical separation provides the following  benefits: Administrative and management separation Change and failure domain isolation from other VDCs Address, VLAN, VRF, and vPC isolation Each VDC acts as an [...]

OSI layer in short with example

7. Application layer-Responsible for initiating or services the request. e.g SMTP, DNS, HTTP, and Telnet 6. Presentation layer-Formats the information so that it is understood by the receiving system e.g Compression and encryption depending on the implementation 5. Session layer– Responsible for establishing, managing, and terminating the session e.g NetBIOS 4. Transport layer-Breaks information into [...]

Important CLI commands for F5 LTM

TMOS commands run util bash -enable shell show sys self-ip -show self IP’s show ltm persistence persist-records -show persistence records list ltm node [node_address] -show node status modify ltm node [node_address] down -disable node modify ltm node [node_address] up -enable node modify net packet-filter all logging enabled -enable logging for all packet filters delete ltm [...]

Hardware terms

Bandwidth Bandwidth refers to the amount of information that can be transmitted over a network in a given amount of time, usually expressed in bits per second or bps Protocol Protocols are the set of rules / algorithm used to learn routes, so that network traffic can be passed from a source to the destination. [...]

VLAN, TRUNKING, VTP

Vlan trunking -Vlan divides the broadcast domain -In New switch, Default Vlan = Native Vlan = Vlan 1 -Native Vlan can be changed from Vlan 1 to Vlan10, 20 etc. -Vlan 1 cannot be deleted even after entering command -Vlan 1 carries critical traffic like CDP, VTP etc. -Access port carries traffic of only one [...]

How DHCP works?

The Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) is a standardized network protocol used on Internet Protocol (IP) networks. The DHCP protocol is controlled by a DHCP server that dynamically distributes network configuration parameters, such as IP addresses, for interfaces and services. A router or a residential gateway can be enabled to act as a DHCP server. [...]

What is UDLD?

Unidirectional Link Detection (UDLD) is a data link (layer 2) protocol from Cisco Systems to monitor the physical configuration of the cables and detect unidirectional links. UDLD allow two switches to verify if they can both send and receive data on a point-to-point connection.UDLD works with the Layer 1 (L1) mechanisms to determine the physical [...]

What is metro ethernet?

A metropolitan-area Ethernet, Ethernet MAN, or metro Ethernet network is a metropolitan area network (MAN) that is based on Ethernet standards. It is commonly used to connect subscribers to a larger service network or the Internet. Businesses can also use metropolitan-area Ethernet to connect their own offices to each other. An Ethernet interface is much [...]

How HTTP protocol works?

HTTP functions as a request–response protocol in the client–server computing model. A web browser, for example, may be the client and an application running on a computer hosting a web site may be the server. The client submits an HTTP request message to the server. The server, which provides resources such as HTML files and [...]

How to setup the internet access through the Cisco ASA firewall?

Basic Guidelines for setting Internet through the Cisco ASA firewall: At first we need to configure the interfaces on the firewall. !— Configure the outside interface. interface GigabitEthernet0/0 nameif outside security-level 0 ip address 10.165.200.226 255.255.255.224 !— Configure the inside interface. interface GigabitEthernet0/1 nameif inside security-level 100 ip address 10.1.1.1 255.255.255.0 The nameif command gives [...]

What are the NAT syntax changes in the Cisco ASA firewall

There are major nat syntax changes after the ASA firewall iOS version 8.3. Regular static NAT: In the pre 8.3- static (inside,outside) 192.168.100.100 10.1.1.6 net mask 255.255.255.255 In the version 8.3 and later- object network obj-10.1.1.6 host 10.1.1.6 nat (inside,outside) static 192.168.100.100 Regular static PAT: In the pre 8.3- static (inside,outside) tcp 192.168.100.100 80 10.1.1.16 [...]

What is ICMP?

ICMP is Internet Control Message Protocol, a network layer protocol of the TCP/IP suite used by hosts and gateways to send notification of datagram problems back to the sender. It uses the echo test / reply to test whether a destination is reachable and responding. It also handles both control and error messages.